Παρασκευή, 31 Μαρτίου 2017

Biological Universe

I, a universe of atoms, an atom in the Universe
                                                 Richard P. Feynman

From: Vishal Kumbhar (Theoretical Astronomer)
 (Founder & Director of Bramhandiniyog Astronomy Research Institute)



The motion, function, modification and all activities are happening in our body is similar to the cosmos activities. Here we are just correlating with them to give the new and another view to understanding the Universe. If we observe our internal body function and compare with the cosmos events then we can solve biggest mysteries of cosmos. It will be easier to understand. The difference in events is happens in body in too much smaller as compare with cosmos, try to correlate it for our better understanding.
Atoms or molecules are building blocks of all the matters whether it is
in our body or in cosmos.........!

Ø Cell
A cell is a basic unit of life as we know it. It is the smallest unit capable of independent reproduction. Is a basic building block of living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. For providing (shape) structure to the body, we take nutrient from food, convert those nutrients into energy and carry out specialized functions. Cells also contain the body’s hereditary material and can make copies of themselves.
Single celled organism is unicellular organism. ex. Amoeba- he reproduces himself. They behave and work like multicellular organism i.e. like human. The life is start from single cell like Universe started from big-bang. i.e. Human life and life of Universe have same starting condition. The basic component of cell is plasma membrane, it separates cell one another and form the surrounding medium is porous and allows movement of substance or material inward as well as outward. The membranes contain proteins that act as channel and pumps to take out molecules from the cell. In addition to cell membrane, there is an outer thick layer in cell of plants is a cell wall.
The jelly like substance found between the cell membrane and nucleus is cytoplasm. It provides a safe environment for all intra-cellular components. The cytoplasm made from water, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Nucleus is a membrane enclosed organelle found in the cells that is also known as control center of the cell. Nucleus is always separate from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane. The small spherical body inside the nucleus is nucleolus.
Chromosomes are thread like structure located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells, but they are not always present, they form around the time of cell division. Chromosomes carry genes which hold the information to build and maintain an organism’s cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. Genes form a few stretches of DNA, which is a nucleic acid that contain genetic instructions used in development and functioning of all known organism.
The cell having a well-organized nucleus and nuclear membrane are known as eukaryotic cell. And a prokaryotic cell has a plasma membrane. They are surrounded by semi fluid substance i.e. Cytosol. On which there is coating called capsule and it protect the cell from stick to another surfaces.
Flagellum is a tail like projection to it.

Ø Cosmos  Events
Like cell, the big-bang is basic event of universal life. It is also capable to produce its family i.e. stars, galaxies, planets and all heavenly objects.




                                                            Figure 1.1: Eukaryotic cell and prokaryotic cell


Like cell, in the beginning of big-bang all the particles got a mass in Higgs field. Same work is done by the cell. After these events all objects get separated by collision and other forces as well, like cell separation. All objects in the cosmos are made by some layers and they are transparently separated by each other like cells are separated by porous. And it is allow for inward and outward movements. Also we can say that both cell and cosmic object have outer thick layer.

Like chromosomes in cell, they are appear only when cell division process same thing happen in the star also. Some unknown parts of its core come into appearance after its collision with others or at blast. i.e. Supernovae. In cell, a chromosome carries information through genes and is helpful for development and functioning of known organism. Same thing occur in star blast, we collecting the information from its remnants and emitted rays in the range of gamma-rays, x-ray and visual range.
The same process occurs in the cell as well as in the star cycle. Yet we don’t know exactly what is happening in the star cycle..? Hence we just need to understand what is exactly going on in the cell, and then automatically we can solve all unknown mysteries about star and its life cycle.


                           
            


             Figure 1.2: Cell evolution and Big Bang





  Figure 1.3: Cell nucleus and star nucleus

                                                                                       


Ø Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis and Meiosis are both types of cell division. They both deal with
replication of chromosomes. The chromosomes are divided in a similar
way and transported to newly formed cells. Some of the stages resemble
each other in significant way.

Ø Mitosis
If a cell wants to make a duplicate of itself then, they must copy its DNA (part of a chromosome). And they separated and sorted into two sides of the cell. The cell then split in to two parts. Part of each parent is carried to the two new cells. Results in cells such as internal organs, skin, bones, blood etc. There are few stages of mitosis such as,
Ø Inter-phase - Pro-phase (preparation phase) - Meta-phase (organizational phase) - Ana-phase (Separation phase) - Telo-phase.
After mitosis the actual splitting of the daughter cells into two separate cells is known as cytokinesis. And occurs differently in both plant cells and animal cells. Finally, the new identical cell separates and once again they enter into inter-phase in preparation for a later mitotic division. While the chromosomes are no longer visible, they will be replicated just before mitosis begins.



Figure 1.4: Stages of mitosis
                                                                                                                       

Ø Meiosis
Meiosis I- Has four phases as,
Ø Pro-phase I - Meta-phase I - Ana-phase I - Telophase I
Meiosis II
The meiosis I is really similar to mitosis. The only difference is that the two chromatids per chromosomes are not necessarily identical due to genetic recombination occurring in meiosis I.
Ø Pro-phase II - Meta-phase II - Anaphase II - Telophase II
The four daughter cells are now all haploid and have the right amount of DNA. They are ready to develop into sperm or eggs now.      
 




  Figure 1.5: Stages of meiosis

Ø How star is born...?
Imagine an enormous cloud of gas and dust, many light-years across. Gravity, as it always does, tries to pull the materials together. A few grains of dust collect a few more, then a few more, then more still. Eventually, enough gas and dust has been collected into a giant ball, at the center of the ball, the temperature from all the gas and dust bumping into each other under the great pressure of the surrounding material reaches 15 million degrees or so. A wondrous event occurs....nuclear fusion begins and the ball of gas and dust starts to glow. A new star has begun its life in our Universe.
!!Like cell starts its life in our body..!!
So, what is this material, called “nuclear fusion”......? And why
does it start happening inside the ball of gas and dust..? It happens like
this...As the contraction of the gas and dust progresses and temperature
reaches 15 million degrees or so, the pressure at the center of the ball
become enormous. The electrons are stripped off of their parent atoms,
creating a plasma. The contraction continues and the nuclei in the plasma start moving faster and faster. Eventually, they approach each other so fast, that they overcome the electrical repulsion that exists between their protons. The nuclei crash into each other so hard that they stick together, or fuse. In doing so, they give off a great deal of energy. This energy from fusion pours out from the core, setting up an outward pressure in the gas around it the ball of gas and dust, it moves off into space in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The ball, now a star, begins to shine.
New stars come in a verity of sizes and colors. They range from blue
to red, from less than half the size of our Sun to over 20 times or more the Sun size. It all depends on how much gas and dust is collected during the stars formation. The color of the star depends on the surface temperature of the star. And its temperature depends, again on how much gas and dust were accumulated during formation. The more mass a star starts out with, the brighter and hotter it will be. For a star, everything depends on its mass.
Throughout their life, stars fight the inward pull of the force of gravity. It is only the outward pressure created by the nuclear reactions pushing
away from the star core that keeps the star “intact”. But these nuclear
reactions require fuel, in particular hydrogen. Eventually the supply of
hydrogen runs out and the star begins its demise.
Just observe the cell evolution in our body universe and star evolution
in the cosmos......!! Answers of all mysterious questions will solve
automatically.



            Figure 1.6: Formation of Star

Ø Co-relation between Cell and Star
Each minute our body needs to make about..300 million new cells..! A cell spends a good part of its life in inter-phase as working and growing, breaking the sugars, synthesizing proteins, enzymes. However, cells inevitably wear out, break down and suffer injuries.
Just think, the star is born with millions of atoms (photons) collecting
together, then its mass is depends on the how much gas is trapped during
formation. The fusion reaction is going on that time, the star is at good
condition. Similarly like the cell is at inter-phase stage. After that, time
goes on then fuel is burn out and star will dead with supernovae or hypernovae and form white dwarf, neutron star or black hole. Same thing is happening in the cell cycle also. Its constituent particles (atoms) may be different but its process is same.
!!That means Cells are the stars of our body Universe..!! Still yet we
don’t know confidently how the planets were formed.

Ø Tissue
Is a group of cells that perform a similar function. These are in unicellular organisms. Four categories of tissue in the human body,
i) Epithelial tissue:-Covers body and organ surface, line body cavities and forms glands. Is involved with protection, absorption, excretion, secretion, diffusion and filtration.
ii) Connective tissue:-Binds, supports and protects body parts, stores energy and minerals.
iii) Muscle tissue:-Contracts to produce movement.
iv) Nervous tissue:-Initiates and transmits nerve impulses that coordinate body activities.
Tissues act as group of stars or planets in the human body universe.



               Figure 1.7: Types of tissue

Ø Types of star cluster
The group or cluster of stars has known types such as,
i) Open cluster:-It contains from a dozen to many hundreds of stars, usually in an unsymmetrical arrangement.
ii) Globular cluster:-It contains from thousands to hundreds of thousands of stars closely packed in a symmetrical, roughly spherical form. The open cluster and globular cluster similarly as epithelial tissues and connective tissues. From this point of view, more group of stars we don’t know yet..! According to this, other discoveries and studies of star clusters will be essayer than now.
!!! Cells are stars and tissues are group of stars in human body universe...!!!




                                                          Figure 1.8: Open and Globular cluster
             
                                                  
Ø Organs
It is collection of millions of tissues which group together to perform single function in our body universe. There are almost 78 organs in human body universe which vary according to their size, function or action. Out of 78 organs Skin is larger organ with respect to size and weight. The major organ in the body of human is the brain, which is primarily responsible for performing all the functions and actions of the body. With the preview of earlier sections, the Organs are galaxies and group of organs are the group of galaxies. The organs and group of organs are galaxies and group of galaxies in our human body universe.



Ø Formation of Galaxies
Till yet we really don’t know how various galaxies are formed and how
they took many shape that we see today. But we do have some ideas about their origins and evolution.
Shortly after blast of big bang about 14 billion years ago, collapsing gas
and dust clouds might have led to the formation of galaxies.
Interactions between galaxies, specifically collisions between galaxies play an important role in their evolution.
By the Hubble’s law lead to the idea that, the universe is expanding.
We can estimate the age of the universe based on the rate of expansion.
Because some galaxies are billions of light years away from us, we can
discern that they formed fairly soon after the big bang (as you look deeper and deeper into the space, you will see further back in time). Most galaxies formed early but data from NASA’s Galaxy Explorer (GALEX) telescope indicate that some new galaxies have formed relatively recent within the past few billion years.
Most of theories about the early universe make two assumptions..
1. It was filled with hydrogen and helium.
2. Some areas were slightly denser than others.
From these assumptions, astronomers believe that the denser areas
slowed the expansion slightly, allowing gas to accumulate in small protogalactic cloud. In this cloud, gravity caused the gas and dust to collapse and form stars. These stars burnt out quickly and become globular clusters but gravity continued to collapse the clouds. As the clouds collapsed they form rotating disk. The rotating disk attracted more gas and dust and formed galactic disk. Inside the galactic disk new stars formed.
What remains on the outskirts of the original cloud were globular clusters and the halo composed of gas, dust and dark matter.
First solve the question that we know exactly how the galaxies were
formed in the universe.....???
Still answer is mysterious.....Right !!
If we observe how the organs were formed in our body universe then
maybe we will reach at unique solution that of how the galaxies were
formed..!!
Ø Brain of Human and Cosmos
The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organ in the human body universe. It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that
communicate in trillions of connections we call them as synapses. The
function of Synapses is to transfer electrical or chemical signal (information) from one cell to another. The transfer can be from nerve to nerve (nuero-neuro) or nerve to muscle (neuro-myo).
The universe also has its brain but yet we don’t know what it is..??
Also it is communicating with all heavenly bodies, only thing is that we
unaware about this.

                                                          

Figure 1.9: Very small part of Synapses


 We know 5000 synapses in the width of a hair...!!

Ø Mysteries of Universe
Now we need to think about it....
How galaxies were formed...??
What is the brain of  universe...??
How they communicating i.e.which frequency they are using...??
How and who is expanding this universe...??
If we comparatively study our human body universe and big bang universe, may be some unknown mysteries will be solve much earlier than present..........


 Reference and Links
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